Specialists vs. Generalists: What’s the Difference?

specialists vs generalists

Specialists and generalists are two distinct career paths. However, the line between the two can be a bit blurry sometimes.

Here’s our quick definition for both: 

“A specialist is a person who focuses on one specific area of expertise, while a generalist is someone who has a wide range of knowledge and experience.”

Each of these career paths come with its own advantages and disadvantages. Let’s explore those pros and cons, browse a few different examples of specialists vs generalists, and see which approach fits you best. 

What is a Specialist?

A specialist is a person who specializes in a particular area of expertise. This is someone who has gained extensive and in-depth knowledge and understanding of a particular field, such as SEO. Specialists may have a formal education in the field or have acquired their knowledge through extensive experience or research. 

Specialists may be professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and engineers who are highly trained in their respective fields. They may also be knowledgeable hobbyists or experts who can provide insight and advice on a particular subject. Combining their knowledge with the resources they have available, specialists can provide valuable information and assistance. 

Pros and Cons of Being a Specialist

Being a specialist has both advantages and disadvantages. Having the expertise and knowledge that comes with being a specialist can give the individual an edge over those who lack the same qualifications.

On the other hand, specialists can often become one-dimensional in their knowledge, holding them back from new discoveries or breakthroughs in their work.

The advantages of specializing include:

  • Gaining expertise in a particular field
  • Being able to provide valuable information and assistance to others
  • Having a competitive edge over those who lack the same qualifications. 

The disadvantages of specialization include: 

  • Having limited knowledge and skill in other areas
  • The potential to become one-dimensional in knowledge, even within a sub-niche
  • Lacking the ability to think outside the box or take risks

What is a Generalist?

A generalist is someone with knowledge and skills in a variety of different fields. 

Unlike specialists, generalists are not deeply knowledgeable in any single area, but instead have a wide range of knowledge and experience across a variety of topics. 

This broad knowledge allows the person to better understand the complex interactions between different disciplines and fields.

Pros and Cons of Being a Generalist

The list of pros and cons of going down the generalist route boils down to the following: 


  • Ability to view problems and issues from multiple perspectives: Generalists are able to take a holistic approach to problem-solving, as they are aware of the connections between different fields.
  • Versatility: Generalists have the ability to adapt quickly to different situations and fields, meaning they can easily move from one area to another.


  • Lacking expertise in any particular field: Generalists do not have deep expertise in any given field, and thus may not be able to provide the same level of advice or guidance as specialists.
  • Prone to getting overwhelmed: Generalists often become overwhelmed by having too much knowledge and experience in a variety of fields, making it difficult for them to focus on any single issue.

Generalist Versus Specialist: What’s the Difference?

The main difference between generalists and specialists is their level of knowledge and expertise. 

While specialists have deep and focused knowledge in a particular area, generalists have broader and more shallow knowledge across different areas. 

For example, a surgeon has a deep and focused knowledge of medicine and surgery, whereas a nurse’s field of expertise is generally more broad, taking into account other aspects of healthcare outside of surgery.

What are Employers Looking For?

When it comes to hiring, employers look for individuals who utilize their respective knowledge and expertise in a practical and efficient way. Those who specialize in a certain field tend to have the most success, as employers can rely on the knowledge and skills that come with such expertise.

However, the broader knowledge and experience of generalists can also be beneficial in certain situations. In a competitive environment, many businesses prefer individuals who think outside the box, or whose skills can be applied across multiple fields—something generalists excel at.

Depending on the type of company or position you’d like to work at, both generalists and specialists can be valuable.

Startups and small companies that are constantly changing and evolving may prefer generalists due to their versatility. Vice versa, established companies may value specialists or generalists as they bring knowledge and experience that can be directly applied to their business.

How to Decide if You Should be a Generalist or Specialist

So, which one should you be? 

The quick answer: It depends on what your goals are with your career, and what you want to accomplish in life. 

If your aim is to gain a broad and general knowledge of different topics, then you may be better off as a generalist. On the other hand, you might actually want to have a deep understanding of a particular field, in which case the specialization route may be a better fit.

When deciding to specialize or not, it is important to consider both the advantages and disadvantages of each option to make an informed decision. Consider your goals, career options, and how each approach will help you achieve those goals (or not!). Take your time and weigh each option to make sure it’s the right decision for you.

Factors to consider

As you take a deeper look at your unique field of work and decide whether to dig deeper or go exploring, here are four key items to keep in mind: 

  • Career Goals: Are you looking to gain knowledge in a particular field or have a broad understanding of a variety of topics?
  • Resources: Do you have access to the resources needed to be a specialist or a generalist?
  • Skill Level: How comfortable are you in different fields? 
  • Time: How much time do you have to dedicate to a particular field or to gaining knowledge across a variety of topics?

Generalist vs Specialist Salary

The salary of generalists and specialists can vary widely and is largely dependent on the individual’s field, expertise, and experience. 

In general, specialists tend to have higher salaries than generalists, as they often have a deep understanding of their field and the specific skills it requires.

Generalist vs Specialist Examples

Examples of generalists and specialists can be seen in virtually all areas of employment. Here’s a list comparing and contrasting generalists versus specialists in different fields:  

  • Medical: Doctors who treat specific diseases or provide a narrow range of medical services (such as surgeries) are specialists, while nurses are generalists.
  • Business: Project managers are generalists, while accountants are specialists. 
  • Technology: Programmers who know one or two programming languages deeply are specialists, while software engineers who can work across multiple languages at a decent level are generalists. 
  • Education: Teachers at most public schools are generalists, while graduate and postgraduate university professors are specialists. 

Final Thoughts: Which are You?

Whether you choose to specialize or generalize depends on your priorities and goals. Specialists have in-depth knowledge and expertise in a particular area, while generalists have broad knowledge across multiple fields. 

Always consider the advantages and disadvantages of each path before making a decision. Ultimately, whether you should specialize or generalize should be based on which route will help you achieve your goals.

Bonus Note

This applies to both individuals and businesses. Some businesses serve the general population, while others are targeted toward niche communities. Regardless of where your business falls on the specialization-generalization scale, a solid digital marketing strategy goes a long way to put your brand and offers in front of the people who are looking for them.